Association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes
Inflammation and oxidative stress play a central role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. However, little is known of how various dietary components interact to influence this inflammatory and anti-oxidant process and the development of diabetes. Most of the studies have focused on assessing individual nutrients or foods in relation to diabetes risk, while it would be important to study the relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes. This study investigated the association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes.
A total of 1 531 survey members from the UK provided dietary data for four years (four days/year). Blood samples were collected for measurements of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at four stages of recruitment. Also height, weight and BMI were measured, and health status and socio-economic characteristics were determined. Reduced rank regression (RRR) was used to derive an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, and plasma total carotenoids, a marker of antioxidant status, were selected as response variables.
Figure 1. Bilberry is a good source of antioxidant compounds.
Of the 1 531 individuals included in the analysis, 52 had diabetes. Individuals with diabetes were older, and had higher BMI and waist circumference. Dietary pattern was inversely related to serum CRP and positively on plasma carotenoids. It was also associated with lower diabetes risk. This anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern was characterised by high intake of vegetables and fruits and low intake of chips, sugar and white bread.
Further research is required to understand how various food items interact to affect metabolic pathways related to diabetes risk. Moreover, the effect of an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern on biomarkers of glucose metabolism should be examined. Research should be targeted to overall diet instead of single foods or nutrients.
Figure 2. Antioxidant content of berries.
Figure 3. Carotenoid content of berries.
Anni Koskela, Arctic Flavours Association
+358 40 164 6177
Source: McGeoghegan, L., Muirhead, C. & Almoosawi, S. (2016): Association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in British adults: results from the national diet and nutrition survey rolling programme years 1-4. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 67: 553-561.
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