The consumption of flavonoid-rich food is associated with decreased risk of developing depression. The possible explanation for this association is the beneficial effect of flavonoids on executive function (EF). EF describes cognitive processes, such as working memory, planning, problem-solving, cognitive flexibility, directing attention, thoughts and, therefore, behavior.
A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been suggested to decrease the risk of colorectal cancer. The protective effects of these foods could probably be at least partly mediated by their polyphenolic compounds.
Suboptimal dietary habits influence many risks for cardiometabolic health. Cardiometabolic syndrome is considered as metabolic disorder, which is associated with increased risk for coronary artery disease, stroke and diabetes, and mortality.
Berries and berry products are essential source of polyphenols, such as anthocyanins, ellagitannins and proanthocyanidins, in the Nordic diet. Berries contain only limited amount of available carbohydrates (mainly glucose and fructose), and they have a very low glycemic effect. However, berries are often consumed with added sugar. Sugar masks the acidic taste of many berries and increase their consumption, but on the other hand, may decrease the health benefits of the berries.
Flavonoids are a diverse range of polyphenolic compounds that are present in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, coffee, tea, chocolate and wine. In this study, dietary flavonoids were divided into six subclasses, and their effects on the body composition of women were investigated.
Recently, the attention of researchers has been focused on lesser-known and underutilized species of edible berries, such as crowberry, lingonberry and rowanberry. Wild berry species often display higher antioxidant activity and have higher concentrations of phenolic compounds in comparison with cultivated berries. Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) has one of the highest content of antioxidants.
Bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) are recognized as a good source of anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, alpha-linolenic acid, pterostilbene, and vitamins. Recent studies have shown the benefit of consuming bilberries to prevent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and anti-inflammation.
Forest owners and stakeholders need increased amounts of information about forests to support decision making. Besides timber, many forest owners also value forest products and services such as berries, mushrooms, biodiversity, recreation and carbon sequestration. Nowadays forest planning can consider simultaneously several forest products and services. This kind of forest planning requires numerical models to predict the development of different ecosystem services, such as berry yields.