Accosiation between dietary factors and mortality from heart disease, stroke, and 2 diabetes

Association between dietary factors and mortality from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in the United States.

Suboptimal dietary habits influence many risks for cardiometabolic health. Cardiometabolic syndrome is considered as metabolic disorder, which is associated with increased risk for coronary artery disease, stroke and diabetes, and mortality.

The study investigated the effects of suboptimal diet on cardiometabolic diseases i.e. hearth disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes associated with mortality in United States. The trends in mortality between 2002 and 2012, and demographic-specific (age, sex, race and education) mortality were evaluated.

The consumption of 10 foods/nutrients associated with cardiometabolic mortality was included in the meta-analysis. Foods/nutrients used in the study were:

  • fruits
  • vegetables
  • nuts/seeds
  • whole grains
  • unprocessed red meats
  • processed meats
  • sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)
  • polyunsaturated fats
  • seafood omega-3 fats
  • sodium

According to the most important findings of the study, about 45.4% of the cardiometabolic deaths were associated with suboptimal intakes of abovementioned 10 dietary factors. The largest numbers of estimated diet-related deaths were related to high sodium (9.5%), low nuts/seeds (8.5%), processed meats (8.2%), low seafood omega-3 fats (7.8%), low vegetables (7.6%), low fruits (7.5%), and high sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (7.4%).

Larger diet-related proportional mortality was detected in men than in women, as well as in younger than older ages. Suboptimal diet was also associated with larger proportional deaths among blacks and Hispanics vs whites, as well as among individuals with low and medium education vs high education.

The number of cardiometabolic deaths decreased annually approximately 26.5% during the study period. The most important decline was related to the increased usage of polyunsaturated fats (- 20.8%) and nuts and seeds (-18.0 %), and decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (-14.5%). Concurrently with overall decreasing trend in mortality, the increased use of unprocessed red meat increased the number of cardiometabolic deaths (+14.4%).

As a conclusion, suboptimal intake of specific foods and nutrients are related to a noticeable proportion of deaths caused by heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. The results of this study should help guiding public health planning and identifying priorities in healthy diet. Especially the guidance for low-sodium foods such as population-wide salt reduction policy is needed.     

Lähde: Micha, R., Peñalvo, J.L., Cudhea, F., Imamura, F., Rehm, C.D. & Mozaffarian, D. (2017) Association between dietary factors and mortality from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in the United States. Jama 317(9): 912-924.

diabetes  sydän- ja verisuonitaudit  ruokavalio  metabolinen oireyhtymä  kuolleisuus  mortality  diet  metabolic syndrome  cardiovascular disease  diabetes